名词（代词）+现在分词The question being settled, we went home. 问题解决之后，我们就回家了。We shall play the match tomorrow, weather permitting. 明天假设天气好，我们就进行比赛。The monitor being ill, we’d better put the meeting off. 班长病了，我们最好还是延期开会吧。
名词（代词）+过去分词The job finished, we went home. 工作结束后我们就回家了。The last bus having gone, we had to walk home. 最后一班公车已经走了，我们必须走路回家。More time given, we should have done the job much better. 如果给我们更多的时间，我们会把工作做得更好。
名 词（代词）+不定式如果明天没有人来，我们将把会议推迟到下周。 So many people to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有如此多的人来帮助他，他一定会成功的。
名 词（代词）+介词短语The soldiers dashed in, rifle in hand. 士兵们端着枪冲了进来。A girl came in, book in hand. 一个少女进来了，手里拿着书。He was waiting, his eyes on her back. 他在等着，眼睛望着她的背影。
名词（代词）+形容词或副词He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. 他坐在前排，嘴半开着。She sat at the table, collar off, head down, and pen in position, ready to begin the long letter. 她坐在桌前，衣领已New Roman'">She sat at the table, collar 解掉，头低了下来，拿好钢笔，准备开始写一封长信。
There being +名词（代词）There being nothing else to do, we went home. 没有别的事可做，我们就回家了。There being no further business, I declare the meeting closed. 没有再要讨论的事了，我宣布散会。
It being +名词（代词）It being Christmas, the government offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故，政府机关都休息。It being a holiday, all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日，所有商店都关门了。 注：独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词with。如：Don’t sleep with the windows open. 别开着窗睡觉。
他 低着头站在老师面前。他低着头站在老师面前。He was lying on the bed with all his clothes on. 他和衣躺在床上。She came in with a book in her hand. 她手里拿着一本书走了进来。He fell asleep with the lamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill. 因为妈妈有病，我无法去度假。He sat there with his eyes closed. 他闭目坐在那儿。All the afternoon he worked with the door locked. 整个下午他都锁着门在房里工作。I can’t go out with all these clothes to wash. 要洗这些衣服，我无法出去了。
a. 用作时间状语The work done (=After the work had been done), we went home. 工作完成后，我们就回家了。
b. 用作条件状语Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow. 如果天气允许的话，他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。
c. 用作原因状语An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=As an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night. 因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲，教授不得不熬夜到很晚。
d. 用作伴随状语He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head (=and his hands were crossed under his head).他躺在草地上，两手交叉枕在脑后。
表示补充说明一个猎人走了进来，他的脸冻得通红We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two. 我们加倍努力，一个人干两个人的活。注：独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时，相当于一个状语从句，一般放在句首，表示原因时还可放在句末；表伴随状况或 补充说明时，相当于一个并列句，通常放于句末。
The test finished, we began our holiday.
= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.
The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.
Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.
This done, we went home.
The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.
He came into the room, his ears red with cold.
He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.