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一般过去时语法详解

  一、概念   表示在的过去某个时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。通常在句子里找到表示过去时间的词或词组。如:yesterday,yesterday morning,yesterd…

  一、概念

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  表示在的过去某个时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。通常在句子里找到表示过去时间的词或词组。如:yesterday,yesterday
morning,yesterday afternoon,yesterday evening,the day before yesterday(前天),last
night,last week,last month, last year,a moment ago(刚才),just now(刚才), two days
ago,a week ago,in 1990等。 如: I went to bed at eleven last night. 昨晚我11:00睡觉。

  二、动词过去式的构成规律

  (一)规则动词的过去式

  1、一般情况下,在动词原形后面加-ed;如:look→looked play→playe d;

  2、以不发音e结尾的动词,在词尾直接加-d;如:live→lived use→used;

  3、以“辅音字母+ y”结尾的动词,先将 y 改为i ,再加 –ed;如:study→studied, try→tried fly→flied

  4、以重读闭音节(即辅音+元音+辅音)或r音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要先双写这个辅音字母后,再加
–ed。如:stop→stoppedplan→planned。

  (二)不规则动词的过去式(后附不规则动词变化表)

  1、改变动词中的元音begin→began drink→drank come→came eat→ate grow→grew run→ran
know→knew win→won speak→spoketake→took write→wrote get→got

  2、变词尾的–d 为–t ; build→built lend→lent send→sent spend→spent bend→bent

  3、与动词原形一样; cut→cut put→put cost→cost hurt→hurt shut→shut

  4、变-ay 为-aid (少数动词); say→said pay→paid lay→laid

  5、采用不同词根;sell→sold teach→taught buy→bought

  6、其他。如:am/is→was are→were have/has→had do→did

  三、句式变化

  (一)一般过去时的一般疑问句

  1、把was, were放在句首,其余位置不变。由Was…?引导的一般疑问句,肯定答为:Yes,… was. 否定回答为:No,…. wasn’t.
由Were…?引导的一般疑问句,肯定回答为:Yes,… were. 否定回答为:No,… weren’t. 如:

  (1)I was born in Shanghai. →Were you born in Shanghai?

  →Yes, I was. (肯定回答) →No, I wasn’t. (否定回答)

  (2)They were in Li Yan’s home last night.

  →Were they in Li Yan’s home last night?

  →Yes, they were. (肯定回答) →No, they weren’t. (否定回答)

  2、在行为动词的句子中,要用助动词词did来引导,其余的语序不变。要注意的是,要把行为动词的过去式改为原形。肯定回答为:Yes, …did.
否定回答:No, …didn’t. 如:

  John played computer games last night.

  →Did John play computer games last night?

  →Yes, he did. (肯定回答) →No, he didn’t. (否定回答)

  (二)一般过去时的否定句

  1、在表示过去存在的状态的句子中,相接在was, were的后面加上not。

  如:(1)He was in the park the day before yesterday. →He was not in the park
the day before yesterday.

  (2)We were busy last week. →We were not busy last week.

  2、在表示过去的时间发生的动作的句子中,要在行为动词的前面加助动词didn’t.然后把过去式的行为动词改为动词原形。即:didn’t +
动词原形。如:

  (1)She played the violin last night. →She didn’t play the violin last
night.

  (2) They swam in the lake yesterday. →They didn’t swim in the lake
yesterday.

  (三) 一般过去式的特殊疑问句

  1.What did … ?(主要是询问过去发生了什么事情,注意要把过去式改为动词原形。)

  We ate Chinese food last night. →What did we eat last night?

  2.Where did ?( 主要是询问过去事情发生的地方。)

  They sang and dance in the music room yesterday morning.

  →Where did they sing and dance yesterday morning?

  3.Who + 动词过去式 … ?( 主要是询问过去事情发生的人物。)

  Mike and Tom climbed mountains last weekend.

  →Who climbed mountains last weekend?

  四、句子结构

  1、在表示某个时间里存在的状态的句子,系动词用过式was,were构成。如:

  (1)I was at home yesterday. 昨天我在家。(2)We were in the gym just now.
刚才我们在体育馆。

  2、在表示过去某个时间里发生的动作,用动词的过去式构成。如:

  I visited my uncle yesterday. 昨天我拜访了我的叔叔。

  3、各种句式

  (1)一般过去时的肯定陈述句:

  主语 + 动词过去式 + 宾语或表语。

  He worked in Shanghai ten years ago.

  (2)一般过去时的否定句:

  a.主语 + didn’t + 动词原形 + 宾语。 (did + not = didn't)

  He didn't do morning exercises yesterday.

  b.主语 + wasn’t/weren’t +表语。(was + not = wasn't were + not = weren't)

  He wasn't an English teacher ten years ago.

  (3)一般过去时的一般疑问句:

  a.Did + 主语 + 动词原形 + 宾语 ?

  Did you study English in 1990 ?

  b.Was/Were + 主语 + 表语 ?

  Was he a pupil five years ago ?

  (4)一般过去时的特殊疑问句:

  a.特殊疑问词 + did + 主语 + 动词原形 + 宾语?

  Where did your parents live five years ago?

  What did you do last Sunday?

  b.特殊疑问词 + were/was + 表语?

  Who was at the zoo yesterday?

  更多相关的语法知识,可以关注阿卡索外教网的官网。如果你在学习的过程中遇到了困难,也可以报名洛基的英语培训课程哦!

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