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英语语法:什么是独立主格结构

  独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、副词、介 词短语、分词、不定式等在句中作状语。   1.独立主格结构的特点   (1)主格结构必须有两个分句,一般…

  独立主格结构是一个名词或代词(作为逻辑主语),加上一个形容词、副词、介 词短语、分词、不定式等在句中作状语。

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  1.独立主格结构的特点

  (1)主格结构必须有两个分句,一般用逗号与主句分开,但与主句之间不能使 用任何连接词。

  (2)后两分句的主语一致时,独立主格部分省去主语。

  (3)后两分句的主语不一致时,那么两个主语都要保留。如:

  He came in the room,his clog followed him.

  (4)主格部分的动作如果是主动的,那么就要用动名词,如果是被动的用过去 分詞。如:

  He coming in the room,his clog followed him.

  He came in the room,followed by his dog.

  他进屋时,他的狗紧随其后。

  (5)时间差的独立主格结构中,主动形式只能用having+过去分词,被动形式只能用having been +过去分词。如:

  Having watered the vegetables,the farmer took a short rest.

  给蔬菜浇完水,这位农民休息了一会。

  Having been given such a good chance,how could she give it up?

  既然得到这样一个好机会,她怎么可能放弃呢?

  (6)主格结构的否定形式,not—定要放在having之前。如:

  (Not) Having dressed myself,I went to the office.

  我(没)穿好衣服就去了办公室。

  (7)时间差的独立主格结构中,having前面绝对不能出现before或after,它们 不能同时出现。

  比较:

  Having dressed myself, I went to the office.

  Before/ After having dressed myself,I went to the office.

  我穿好衣服前(后)就去了办公室。

  Before/ After dressing myself  I went to the office. = Having been dressed,I went to the office.

  2.独立主格结构的用法它表示谓语动词发生的时间、原因、条件或伴随情况 等,相当于一个状语从句或并列句。

  (1)作时间状语

  The work done ( = After the work had been done),we went home.

  工作完成后,我们才回家。

  (2)作条件状语

  Weather permitting ( = If weather permits) they will go on an outing to the beach tomorrow.

  如果天气允许的话,他们将在明天组织一次海滨小游。

  Given her age,she really did a good job in such a short time.

  考虑到她的年龄,cxv82hje在如此短的时间内她确实做得不错。

  (3)作原因状语

  An important lecture to be given tomorrow ( = As an important lecture will be given tomorrow),the professor has to stay up late into the night.

  因为明天要发表一个重要的演讲,教授不得不熬夜到很晚。

  (4)作伴随状语

  He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head( = and his hands were crossed under his head).

  他躺在草地上,两手交叉枕在脑后。

  (5)表补充说明

  A hunter came in,his face red with cold ( = and his face was red with cold).

  一个猎人走了进来,他的脸冻得通红。

  【注】独立主格结构表示时间、条件或原因时,相当于一个状语从句,一般放在句首,表示原因时还可放在句末;表伴随状况或补充说明时,相当于一个并列句, 通常放于句末。

本文来自网络,不代表一鸣英语网立场。转载请注明出处: http://www.chinesemfc.org/ljc/yyyf/2812/
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